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Erfolgreich ins Unternehmertum starten: Gespräch mit dem Obmann der Salzburger Finanzdienstleister

Mann und Frau vor Computer

Der finanzielle Start ins Unternehmertum muss sorgfältig geplant werden, um ein solides Fundament für wirtschaftlichen Erfolg zu legen. Tipps für einen optimalen Start gibt es im Fachgruppen-Interview.

Der Schritt in die Selbstständigkeit erfordert eine sorgfältige Planung. Das betrifft den organisatorischen Rahmen sowie die Finanzierung. Eine durchdachte Startfinanzierung legt die Basis, um gut ins Unternehmertum zu starten und auch langfristig erfolgreich zu wirtschaften. Im Interview spricht Mag. Rupert Lanzendorfer, Obmann der Fachgruppe Finanzdienstleister Salzburg, über Stolpersteine bei der Finanzierung für kleine Unternehmen und erklärt, worauf zu achten ist.

Rupert Lanzendorfer

Obmann der Fachgruppe Salzburger Finanzdienstleister Mag. Rupert Lanzendorfer

Worauf müssen Kleinunternehmer bei der Anfangsfinanzierung Ihres Unternehmens achten?

Mag. Rupert Lanzendorfer: Am Anfang einer Unternehmensgründung wird empfohlen, ein Unternehmenskonzept zu erarbeiten – den Businessplan. Bei den ersten wichtigen organisatorischen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Schritten berät das Gründerservice der WKO. Auf der Seite der Finanzierung ist gute Planung genauso wichtig: Daher ist es unbedingt ratsam, auch einen Finanzierungsplan zu erstellen. Er bildet die Ist-Situation ab und gibt Auskunft darüber, wie hoch die benötigten Fremdmittel sein müssen. Der Finanzierungsplan ist auch ein wichtiges Mittel zur Beurteilung der Kreditwürdigkeit eines Unternehmens.

Was muss im Finanzierungsplan enthalten sein?

Lanzendorfer: Im Finanzierungsplan werden die vorhandenen Eigenmittel gelistet, die in das Unternehmen eingebracht werden, und Höhe und Art der benötigten Fremdfinanzierung. Bei der Planung ist darauf zu achten, dass zur Startfinanzierung noch genügend Kapital für unvorhergesehene Aufwände eingeplant werden – denn gerade in der Startphase lässt sich nicht alles genau kalkulieren. Um bei der Planung auf der sicheren Seite zu sein, sollte man das Fachwissen von Finanzexperten nutzen. Durch ihre Erfahrung wissen sie, worauf bei einer Gründung aus finanzieller Sicht zu achten ist, und sie helfen dabei, den Finanzierungsplan so aufzubereiten, dass er als solide Grundlage für die Verhandlungen mit Banken und Kreditgebern verwendbar ist.

Was ist aus finanzieller Sicht der optimale Start?

Lanzendorfer: Je mehr an Eigenmitteln vorhanden ist, desto besser ist es – denn das senkt das Risiko und bringt eine höhere Kreditwürdigkeit. Als ungefährer Richtwert gilt hier ein Eigenkapitalanteil von 20 bis 30 Prozent. Zudem sollten alle verfügbaren Fördermöglichkeiten genutzt werden. Ganz ohne Fremdkapital geht es natürlich in den wenigsten Fällen. Daher ist eine umfassende Beratung ganz wichtig, um die besten Finanzierungsmöglichkeiten je nach Unternehmensgegenstand und Geschäftsziel zu finden – die für das Unternehmen bewältigbar sind.

„Bei der Fremdfinanzierung sollte man auf einen guten Mix setzen – so entsteht kein Abhängigkeitsverhältnis.“

 

Welche Möglichkeiten der Fremdfinanzierung haben Kleinunternehmen?

Lanzendorfer: Bei der Fremdfinanzierung sollte man auf einen guten Mix setzen: So entsteht kein Abhängigkeitsverhältnis. Möglich sind klassische Varianten der Kreditfinanzierung und Betriebsmittelfinanzierung. Insbesondere bei innovativen Start-ups wird die Form der Crowdfinanzierung immer mehr ein Thema – auch weil eine klassische Kreditfinanzierung häufig nicht möglich ist

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Wie funktioniert die Crowdfinanzierung?

Lanzendorfer: Dabei werden Investoren und Unternehmen über eigene Crowdinvesting-Plattformen zusammengeführt. Das Unternehmen präsentiert seine Geschäftsidee und findet so Investoren. Je nach Modell bekommen die Geldgeber nach einer bestimmten Laufzeit das eingesetzte Kapital zurück und profitieren von den Zinsen oder sind am Unternehmen beteiligt. Bei der Auswahl der Crowdinvesting-Plattformen ist darauf zu achten, dass sie das Gütesiegel tragen: Dann ist gewährleistet, dass sie strenge Transparenzregeln einhalten und sich zu den Standes- und Ausübungsregeln des Fachverbandes Finanzdienstleister bekennen. Ob sich eine Unternehmensidee für die Finanzierung mittels Crowdfunding eignen, können Finanzexperten gut abschätzen – und sie wissen, welche rechtlichen Aspekte bei dieser Art der Finanzierung zu beachten sind.

Haben Sie einen speziellen Finanztipp für junge Unternehmen?

Lanzendorfer: Aufzupassen ist darauf, dass die monatlichen Kreditraten nicht zu hoch gewählt werden. Die Geschäftsentwicklung lässt sich gerade zu Beginn schwer abschätzen, und meist braucht es etwas Zeit, bis sich die Auftragslage gut entwickelt. Da können hohe monatliche Fixkosten eine starke Belastung sein. Meine Empfehlung ist, eine längere Laufzeit mit niedrigeren Raten zu wählen. Außerdem sollten Kreditangebote im Vorfeld genau geprüft und verglichen werden – hier lassen sich Kosten sparen. Auch beim Produktvergleich und bei Verhandlungen mit Banken helfen Finanzexperten. Wenn man die Unternehmensfinanzierung von Beginn an sorgfältig plant, ist ein wichtiger Schritt hin zum erfolgreichen Unternehmertum gemacht
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